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What Are the Different Types of Genes? What Are Their Functionalities?

Before you get to know about the different types of genes, you need to know what genes actually are. Many people have some common misconceptions about genes whereas; others don’t know what genes actually are.

Many people also have a null idea regarding the molecular level of the genes. DNA, also known as deoxyribonucleic acid, is the most important chemical that resides within every cell of our body. Whether you have twin babies, nobody in the world will have an identical gene code. The chromosome will form the base pairs with the help of other chromosomes that are provided by the reproductive partner.

Remember that some specific chromosomes will dominate others while some traits will start combining. As the different types of genes handle the chromosome interactions differently, they will start representing the phenotypes.

In this article, we will discuss the major types of genes properly. Without any further ado, let’s get started.

Complementary Genes 

These genes need two different types of dominant genes to work together so that they can produce a particular type of phenotype. In short, these genes should be able to present together. Otherwise, their required phenotype will fail to appear. One gene is not capable of getting the job done alone. Neither one recessive gene nor the dominant gene will be able to complete the task successfully. Both the dominant genes have to complement each other. Make sure you visit MyBioSource to know more.

Supplementary Genes

The supplementary genes are highly different from the complementary genes as they are dependent on each other to develop one specific type of phenotype. The supplementary genes come with one dominant gene which is highly efficient at expressing itself properly. On the other hand, the second gene also has the capability of expressing independently without any problem. But the first gene should be able to pair with the first one. In such cases, a different type of phenotype should be able to express while the two genes start merging. As per Pediaa, supplementary genes are two independent genes.

Duplicate Genes 

As the name suggests, duplicate genes are also one of the major parts of the genes. Despite recessive or dominant nature, when the two genes start similarly expressing themselves, you will get duplicate genes. One gene doesn’t require another gene to showcase the specific phenotypes as both of them independently determine their process of expressing themselves as well as showcasing their abilities without the other one.

These genes are capable of duplicating the overall nature of the phenotype, which is one of the most interesting concepts about duplicate genes.

Polymeric Genes 

Polymeric genes are also known as additive genes. The polymeric genes work like the duplicate genes in such a way that a compounding and additive effect on one another. However, keep in mind that polymeric genes don’t need to come with a pair of genes that are capable of expressing themselves appropriately.

The polymeric genes are also not dependent on either the dominant or the recessive genes.


These are the different types of genes as well as their functionalities. Make sure you contact us if you have any other questions.


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